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Some musical instruments had symbolic meaning in the context of military rituals. For instance, a wind instrument was a distinguishing feature of commanders. Such musical instruments as idiophone djom, aerophone - nai, nai ruin were the attributes of Tsars, and membranophone - a big drum was directly handed to commanders. Similar symbolic features belonged to musical instruments tabira, chars and others, they mainly identified the rank of a military person.
Military ensemble from horn-like pipes, a horn-like instrument from Penjikent as an attribute of a three-headed and six-handed God with three eyes indicate that this instrument was widely used in military musical practice, and military Armour of soldiers and a three-headed God evidence it. A musical instrument horn was considered a holly instrument. According to legends Akhura Mazda gave a golden horn to Yima and when he blew in it the land stretched in breadth, and people and animals entered the holly Var built by Yima followed by sounds of the golden horn.
Knight culture, which was one the most bright directions of development of the musical art of the Tajik ancestors was tightly connected with the military musical practice. Musical traditions cultivated by the knights were closely connected with urban and palace life structure. Musical practice of the knights is reflected in the wall painting of Sogd, Ustrushana. Details of wall paintings, in particular ensemble of soldiers-musicians from the Kalai Kahkaha Palace (Usturushan), a scene of fighters' procession, deity-fighter with a musical instrument horn from Penjikent are obvious examples.
Narrations of hero fighters, their heroic deeds, as well as tales on heroes like Rustam and Isphandiar became the basis of musical genres noma, choma, doston, as well as "Pahlavoni Surud" ("Song of Heroes"), "Haft Khon" ("Seven Deeds").
Palace ceremonial life (festivity entertainments, rituals, song and epic art) fully revealed many features of the musical art. Court and musical practice was strictly regulated and coordinated by royal astrologers: each day was devoted to a definite pursuit. For instance, on Saturdays tzars held large meetings an entrusted responsibilities to celebrities. On Sundays they gathered to investigate matters and deal with legislative books. On Mondays they went hunting, on Tuesdays - racing, wrestling, polo games etc. Wednesdays were devoted to internal and external policy and logistic issues. High officials' and grandees' matters were considered on Thursdays. On the same day they received representatives of the seven main clans, as well as discussed construction issues: gave instructions on construction of cities and fortress, castles and houses. Friday was a day of "adornment", that is having finished all affairs tzars arranged gala-receptions and tzar feasts. They invited musicians, jugglers and representatives of other arts to amuse the tzar.
One should note that history, philosophy, astronomy, music, astrology fundamentals, literature, rhetoric, stylistics, art of logic, mathematics, medicine etc. comprised the list of fashionable sciences to learn. Representatives of fashionable schools "Farhangistan" and "Dabiristan" could freely play musical instruments chang, vin, barbate, tanbur and cannar. Besides, they learned epic narration and heroic songs on heroes and ancestors, as well as art of dancing. These traditions were further reflected in the "Kabusname" of Kaikavus where it was noted that a secretary (nadim) must be versed in musical art.
Images of various baldrics with little bells on wooden sculptures of dancers of Penjikent and Ustrushan showing their role as an attribute of music and art representatives indicated wide dissemination of dancing traditions in urban and palace musical practice. Wall paintings, in particular images of a Sogd God Veshparkar - powerful god of creation and havoc, creator of the Universe as an embodiment of life and death with a lace with little bells around his body, as well as contours of a human body with a musical instrument in hands show dissemination of dances symbolizing creative functions of a deity, relations to the idea of revival and fertility. It should be noted that in general dances are closely connected with the musical art and reflect both fashionable, urban, palace and ritual traditions. With it all fashionable perception of the musical and dancing art prevailed in the early medieval epoch.
Songs initially related to the cult-ritual traditions like "Dodofarid", "Oini Djamshed", "Khurushi Mugon", "Yazdon Ofarid", "Jomadaron" are closely connected with the palace musical practice. Development of urban and palace musical practice of ancient musical-poetical traditions related to the surud genre is shown in the cycle of songs "Surudi Pahlavon", "Khurosonik", "Surudi Mazandaroni", "Surudi Porsi" and others.
The coming-to-be of the song lyrics at some extent promoted forming of musical ethic-esthetic ideas of the society. In this context the songs "Romishi Jon", "Bogi Shirin", "Mashkuja" and others can be identified as samples of song lyrics, where sense of live nature, attitude to people were interpreted by musical and poetic means.
Ritual practice of Iranian people closely connected with working process, ancient cults and opinions were coordinated by seasonal changes of nature. Centuries'-old process of forming the spring calendar cycle of songs brought to their systematization, thematic unification: "Oroishi Khurshed" ("Taming of the Sun"), "Nozi Navruz" ("Beauty of Navruz"), "Farrukhruz" ("Happy (blessed) Day"). The following songs can be included in the spring cycle: "Navruz", "Navruzi Buzurg" ("Great Navruz"), "Navruzi Kaikubod" ("Navruz Kaikubad"), "Navruzi Khoro", "Sabzai Bakhor" ("Verdure of Spring"), "Sabz Bakhor" ("Green Spring"), "Navbakhori" ("Spring"), "Guljam" ("Flower-bed") and others, that bear relation to spring ceremonies and rituals.
Ancient holidays played an important role in the rise of different musical genres and forms closely connected with the ceremonial-ritual practice, fashionable, urban musical traditions. For instance, the Navruz holiday not only marks the beginning of creation of world by Akhura-Mazda, day of Zoroastrianism conception, establishment of the Tajik calendar system, but is also the day of mounting the throne of the legendary Tsar Djamshed. Time-honored songs "Navruzi Buzurg", "Navruzi Khoro" later included in the classical musical cycles "Twelve Maqom" and "Shashmaqom" are linked with the Navruz holiday.
Rich mythology, various heroic and national songs made a basis of grandiose musical-poetic cycles that became an inalienable part of the Tajik musical practice. Both Bactrian and Saxon epic cycles clashed in the Tajik epos. This and other epic cycles further recorded in the period from Sasanids to Firdousi were widely spread. Ancient legends

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