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Barno Iskhakova, Neryo Aminov and others.
The musical art of sozanda, mavrigikhons - singers and dancers takes a special place in the history of Tajik culture. This art is typical for the musical culture of the Bukhara and Samarkand Tajiks. Execution traditions of the sozanda and mavrigikhons go back to ancient times. Ekuti Oraz, Shoista Ambari Ashk, Kelini Guli Surkh, Mukarramcha Tillo, Yodgor, Latofatkhon, Kurbonkhon Samarkandi and others were the famous musicians, singers and dancers of these musical-poetic genres of the 19th-20lh centuries.
The art of story-tellers - gurugli- is an important feature of the Tajik traditional music. Heroic-historical genre in the Tajik musical folklore was mostly popular in the Southern regions of Tajikistan. Khikmat Rizo, Bobo Yunus Khudoidodzoda, Khaknazar Kabud, Kurbonali Rajab and others are the outstanding executors of the musical epos.
Falak - one of the ancient genres that is still widely popular in the Southern regions and Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous region of Tajikistan- is a musical-poetic genre with lyrical-philosophical tendency. Falak means sky, fate in Tajik language. Poetic forms like rubai, bait, as well as poems from national art and classical Tajik-Persian poetry are used in this genre. Falak is executed accompanied by a musical instrument dutar (dumbrak), stringed-bow (gidjak) and wind (tutak) instruments. Dreams and expectations of the people, love for life and nature, high human ideals are sang in falak. Famous national singers Odina Khoshimov, Faizali Hasanov, Gulchekhra Sodykova, Davlatmand Kholov, Navruzsho Kurbonaseynov, Modjan Nazar-dodova made great contribution in preserving and development of this genre, as well as other genres of the Tajik traditional music.
The creation and formation of new modern artistic tendencies within the Tajik traditional system of music is an exclusively important process ensuring durable and interminable development of this great tendency of the national art. The creation of new musical phenomena is directly connected with the artistic activities of the famous traditional musicians. Most of the names were listed above Shosta Mullojonova, Muslima Bokieva, Djurabek Murodov, Zafar Nozimov, Abdullo Nazriev, Khussein Nasreddinov, Nukra Rakhmatova, Mastona Ergasheva should also be noted.
The 20th century became the time of significant changes in mastery and development of the new type of professional musical art for the national art tradition, forming of which historically started based on the European musical cultures. Opera, symphony, oratorio, cantata, instrumental concerts, ballet and others, as well as new modern musical infrastructure: schools, scientific and concert institutions, a school of composers were initiated in Tajikistan. Traditional music continues to develop in parallel with the new professional music. Correlation and development of these two main directions comprises the contents and artistic peculiarities of the Tajik musical culture in the 20th century.
Representatives of the Russian culture made a great contribution in the establishment of new professional musical art. Composers S. Balasanian and A. Lensky are the authors of the first big opera, balletic and symphonic works based on the Tajik national music. S. Balasanian's ballet "Leily and Medjnun" (1947) was famous world-wide.
Music for ballet performances is important in the establishment and development of the new professional Tajik music in the 1970s-1980s. Many Tajik composers used this genre. These are T. Shakhidi, F. Bakhor, M. Atoev, Y. Mamedov. Attention to ballet is mainly explained by the rich rhythmic and dancing artistic resources of the Tajik traditional music. Diverse use of this heritage in the music of ballet is quite a natural, organic and fruitful process. In this context works of T. Shakhidi were further developed both in use of national artistic means of the musical language and in the choise of subjects and plots, dramaturgy and composition of performances. There are the ballets "Death of Money-Lender" (1978), "Khayam's Rubai" (1980), "Heart Memories" (1981), "Yusuf and Zuleikha"( 1988), "losiph the Beautiful" (1989), "Siyavush" (1992). It should also be noted that the appearance of a Pleiad of good Tajik dancers promoted successful development of the ballet music in the second half of the 20th century. These are L.Zahidova, M.Kabilov, V.Kormilin, A.Egorov, B.Isaeva, M.Sabirova, M.Burkhanov, K.Kholov, T.Kholova, S.Uzakova, S.Azamatova, Sh.Turdieva, F.Ruzimatov and many others. This can also be considered as natural continuation of national dancing traditions of the Tajiks at the new stage of historical development. The outstanding ballet dancer Malika Sobirova, conquered the whole civilized world. Another famous Tajik dancer was Farrukh Ruzimatov.
Opera, cantata-oratorical, vocal-symphony and chamber-vocal music takes a special place in the art of the Tajik composers. This is conditioned first of all by the fact that the most deep, concealed poetic feelings in the Tajik traditional musical system were expressed through singing, where harmony of rhythm and figurative construction of poems and melody play an important role. Here the Tajiks have the deepest historical artistic traditions and achievements. This is why vocal music in general became a more organic sphere for continuation of national musical tradition, and the most difficult to meet the high artistic level of these traditions. And that is why it was natural, that the chamber vocal music became the sphere, where harmony of the traditional and new features of the Tajik music revealed itself. This was conditioned by close lyric, chamber moods of the traditional music, its figurative construction, laconic and economy of the artistic means used with their maximum expressiveness, such genres of the new chamber music as romance and songs. The latter were especially developed in the works of the Tajik composers of the older generation: Sh. Sokhibov, F. Shakhobov, Z. Shakhidi, F. Soliev, A. Khamdamov, Sh. Saifiddinov, Kh. Abdullaev, D. Okhunov. More attention was paid to romance and songs by the composers of the next generations: D. Dustmukhamedov, Z. Zulfikarov, M. Atoev, as well as K. Yakhyaev, L. Pulatova, Kh. Niyozi, A. Musaev and others. Opera music is one of the most complicated genres in the new professional music both in possession of necessary artistic-expressive means, understanding of features of the opera dramaturgy and its development, spatial-scenic vision of musical acts, and in implementation of the national artistic traditions in this absolutely new musical genre. Starting from the first opera works created by the Tajik composers - Sh. Saifiddinov "Pulat and Gulru" (1957) and Z. Shakhidi "Komde and Madan" (1960) and the recent premiere of T. Sattorov "Rustam and Sukhrob" (2001) the Tajik opera music passed through a complicated and fruitful way of development. During this period many opera performances of different topics and directions were created and produced. For instance, a legend-lyric topic is embodied in the opera of Z. Shakhidi "Komde and Madan", which was created by the composer based on the poem of the classic of the Tajik literature Abdukodyr Bedil of the same name. Infinite melodic talent of Z. Shakhidi manifested itself with special strength and revelation in this work. In this turn but in 20 years a splendid opera of D. Dustmukhamedov "Golden Village" (1981) was created based on the poem of the national poet of Tajikistan M.Mirshakar of the same name. Another actual topic of the operatic art is the interpretation of important historical events in the life of Tajik people, heroes. Two directions separated in the historical topic - lyrical and heroic interpretation of ancient events. This lyrical trend is expressed with talent in the opera of Sh. Saifiddinov "Rudaki" (1975) devoted to the life and work of a founder of the Tajik-Persian classical poetry Abuabdullo Rudaki (IX century). The figure of Rudaki -genius poet, thinker, fighter for the beautiful and fair life is revealed with great artistic force. In other directions - heroic, heroic-romantic interpretation of historical events. It attracts more attention from the Tajik composers, which is mostly conditioned by the creation of a new independent state -Republic of Tajikistan, as well as celebration of the 1100 anniversary of the first Tajik state of the Samanids. In this connection operas of T. Shakhidi - "Amir Ismoil" (1999) and T. Sattorov "Rustam and Sukhrob" (1999) should be noted. Artistic interpretation of the most important historical events of the Tajik people, their rich inner experience in consideration and solving of difficult problems of human and society life are implemented in these works. The next important subject in creation of opera music is opera for children. This new type of opera music is actual for development of modern musical culture of Tajikistan, expansion of its artistic borders and interests, it evidences maturity of artistic processes. The first opera for children was created by D.Dustmukha-medov - "The House of Zargush-Bibi" (1978) and opera "She-Goat Curly Legs" by F. Odinaev(1985).
Impetuous development of all genres and types of the new Tajik vocal music in the XX century (opera, oratorio, romance etc.) was mainly connected with the famous masters of art. These are the singers T. Fozylova, B.Turaev, Kh.Tokhirov, A.Mullokandov, Hk.Akhmedov, R.Tolmasov, F.Khakimova, A.Abduraufov, R.Burkhanov, J.Galibov, E.Andreyv, I.Yakimec, O.Sabzalieva, B.Mamatkulov, N.Khamrabaev, Z.Aminova, M.Ismoilov, A.Mirrajabov, M.Dostiev and many others; conductors A.Klymov, L.Levin, E. Ayrapetiantz, I.Abdullaev, P.Bolenko, A.Niyazmamadov, B.Merobov and others; produces R. Korokh, S. Saidmuradov, G. Valamat-Zade, A.Procenko, A.Azimova, A.Bakaleinikov, L.Serebrovskaya, Sh.Nizamov and others; painters decorators V.Rindyn, E. Chemodurov, V. Fufygin, R. Safarov and others; choirmasters V.Miroshnichenko, Kh.Mullo-kandov, L.Jirova, Z.Trokhina, Kh.Majidov and others.
Instrumental music is one of the most diversified by genre and scale within the sphere of Tajik composers. This type of the Tajik music is more popular outside the Republic at different international festivals and competitions, where the works of Tajik composers have been awarded various premiums, awards, diplomas. Definite stylistic directions have been established in this sphere. The leading tendency is re-interpretation of the national musical heritage, structure and semantics of its various genres and artistic figures, traditional perception of the world in the context of modern reality of the world, in which we live today. This world by virtue of different circumstances, social, political, cultural processes, and especially a more active and global expansion of influence of information technologies (radio, television, video and audio equipment) is today a maximum open, various cultures intersect in it. And definite style directions in the new Tajik instrumental music oriented on different layers in the traditional musical heritage: makom, falak, ceremonial folklore (wedding, lullaby, prayers etc.) established in such a social and artistic context.
Many composers applied the classical heritage - maqom. Among them are Y. Ter-Osypov, F.Shakhobov, Sh. Sokhibov, Z.Shakhidi, Sh. Saifiddinov, F. Bakhor, T. Shakhidi, D.Dustmukhamedov, A. Soliev and others. Each of them contributed to the interpretation of the classical musical heritage, its semantics through new means of artistic expression (e.g. symphonic orchestra). F. Bakhor made great contribution to elaboration of makom thematic of artistic figures. His symphonic poem "Marakanda" (1970) was world-wide recognized as one of the first and notable national orchestra works of the Tajik composers. In the "Maqomi Navo" for symphonic orchestras (1980) and the symphony "Buzurg" (1980) the composer managed to form and implement two different approaches in comprehension of the artistic sphere of the maqom, its endless semantic possibilities.
The other important direction in the interpretation of national musical traditions is falak. As a strong and striking traditional artistic figure, as well as a basic material it has priority significance in works of many Tajik composers, especially for T. Sattarov, F. Odinaev and K. Khikmatov. In their works, falak, its structure and semantics are implemented differently, e.g. as a principle of dramaturgy at the level of forming their own understanding of everlasting issues of life and death, good and evil. Among various works related to the artistic sphere of falak "A Concert for Orchestra, Piano, Harp and Percussion Instruments" by T.Sattorov (1986) and "Falak" for Dumbra and Symphonic Orchestra" by F. Odinaev (1973) and "Trio for Violin, Viola and Percussion Instruments" by
К. Khikmatov (1990) should be noted.
The main source of creation of original, deeply national artistic works for composers of Tajikistan is the musical folklore reflecting various sides of the Tajik life, its happiness and sorrow, lyrical and heroical, odour of land and nature. For example, traditional wedding melodies and figures of the Tajiks got new striking life in the symphonic poem by T. Shakhidi "Festival" (1975), and symphonic poems "Colours of Sunny Pamin" (1982) and "Three Pamir Frescos" for violin and piano (1976) by Z. Mirshakar originally and talentedly reflect greatness and conviction of nature and Pamirian melodies. The art of many Tajik composers is associated with the Pamir folclore, its images and melodies. These are Sh. Pulodi, F. Bakhor, D. Dustmukhamedov. The poem "Lalaik" (1992) for the chamber orchestra of P. Turobi based on lullabi melodies of Pamir, should be especially noted.
The Tajik musical art is multi-faceted. It has ancient and highly developed traditions, which are alive at present and developing in various forms and directions, having a large potential to create new phenomena as an important and organic part of the world's artistic process.
Askarali RAJABOV
Firuz ULMASOV
Nairn KHAKIMOV

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